The student who struggles with reading, writing, and/or spelling often puzzles teachers and parents. The student displays adequate intelligence and receives the same classroom instruction that benefits most children. Still the student struggles with some or all of the many facets of reading, writing and/or spelling. This student may be identified as a student with dyslexia.
As defined in TEC §38.003:
(1) “Dyslexia” means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.
(2) “Related disorders” includes disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperception, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysgraphia, and developmental spelling disability.
The current definition of the International Dyslexia Association states:
Dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific language-based disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single-word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing. These difficulties in single-word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, often including, in addition to problems with reading, a conspicuous problem with acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling (International Dyslexia Association Research Committee in collaboration with the National Center for Learning Disabilities and the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, April 1994).