Characteristics of Dyslexia

  • The primary difficulties of a student identified as having dyslexia occur in phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word decoding, reading fluency, and spelling. Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties are unexpected for the student’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties. 
     
    The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia: 
    • Difficulty reading real words in isolation; 
    • Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words; 
    • Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading; (lack of reading fluency); 
    • Difficulty with learning to spell. 
     
    The reading/spelling characteristics are the result of difficulty with the following: 
    • The development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words; 
    • Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds; 
    • Phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory); 
    • Rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet. 
     
    Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include the following: 
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension; 
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition; 
    • A limited amount of time spent in reading activities.