Characteristics of Dyslexia
The primary difficulties of a student identified as having dyslexia occur in phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word decoding, reading fluency, and spelling. Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties are unexpected for the student’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.
The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:
• Difficulty reading real words in isolation;
• Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words;
• Slow, inaccurate, or labored oral reading; (lack of reading fluency);
• Difficulty with learning to spell.
The reading/spelling characteristics are the result of difficulty with the following:
• The development of phonological awareness, including segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words;
• Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
• Phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory);
• Rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet.
Secondary consequences of dyslexia may include the following:
• Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension;
• Variable difficulty with aspects of written composition;
• A limited amount of time spent in reading activities.